Arduino is a single-board microcontroller, intended to make the application of interactive objects or environments more accessible. The hardware consists of an open-source hardware board designed around an 8-bit Atmel AVR microcontroller, or a 32-bit Atmel ARM. Pre-programmed into the on-board microcontroller chip is a boot loader that allows uploading programs into the microcontroller memory without needing a chip (device) programmer.
Arduino boards can be purchased pre-assembled or as do-it-yourself kits. Hardware design information is available for those who would like to assemble an Arduino by hand. It was estimated in mid-2011 that over 300,000 official Arduinos had been commercially produced
Smartcitizen.me is a platform to generate participatory processes of the people in the cities. Connecting data, people and knowledge, the objective of the platform is to serve as a node for building productive open indicators and distributed tools, and thereafter the collective construction of the city for its own inhabitants.
Wikipedia is a collaboratively edited, multilingual, free Internet encyclopedia that is supported by the non-profit Wikimedia Foundation. Volunteers worldwide collaboratively write Wikipedia's 30 million articles in 287 languages, including over 4.4 million in the English Wikipedia. Anyone who can access the site can edit almost any of its articles, which on the Internet comprise the largest and most popular general reference work, ranking sixth globally among all websites on Alexa with an estimated 365 million readers.
LocalWiki is a grassroots effort to collect, share and open the world’s local knowledge.We want anyone, anywhere to be able to learn about where they live — their local government, the history of their neighborhoods, streets, social movements, noteworthy local figures, social services, schools – every facet of life in their community. And we believe that this vast collection of local knowledge should be created by the people who know it best - individual community members working together. There are already over 70 independent LocalWiki projects in 9 countries and in 7 languages.
Freenet is free software which lets you anonymously share files, browse and publish "freesites" (web sites accessible only through Freenet) and chat on forums, without fear of censorship. Freenet is decentralised to make it less vulnerable to attack, and if used in "darknet" mode, where users only connect to their friends, is very difficult to detect.
Gnutella2, often referred to as G2, is a peer-to-peer protocol developed mainly by Michael Stokes and released in 2002. While inspired by the gnutella protocol, G2 shares little of its design with the exception of its connection handshake and download mechanics. It adopts an extensible binary packet format and an entirely new search algorithm.